Types of Big Data

Types of Big Data

With the growing influence of data in today’s world, it’s important to understand what types of big data exist. Big data is defined as an expansive collection of data that is too complex to be processed by traditional data processing systems. The challenge isn't just in the amount of data, but also in the variety of data and the speed in which it needs to be processed.

Structured Data

Structured data is the most conventional type of data, and easily processed by traditional data processing systems. This data is defined as being organized in a particular way and easily searchable, categorizable, and sortable based on filters. Data that falls under structured data include data from databases, data warehouses, and other online sources. Generally, structured data comes in the form of spreadsheets, tables, and databases that have predefined fields or columns that can be easily analyzed and processed.

Unstructured Data

Unstructured data is the opposite of structured data, and hence can't be easily processed by traditional data processing systems. This data is generated from various sources and the data may not have a predefined format, essentially meaning that the analysis process is a lot more difficult. Unstructured data includes images, videos, audio files, social media messages, and text messages. Big data analytics tools can assist with identifying patterns and insights into this type of data, but it can be quite challenging due to its complex and unorganized nature.

Semi-Structured Data

Semi-structured data is in between structured and unstructured data. It’s not organized in a way that structured data is, but it does have identifiable characteristics that allow it to be filtered and searched through more easily. This data includes emails, XML data, web pages with metadata, and JSON files. It can be challenging to analyze this type of data as it may require a combination of structured and unstructured data techniques. By using big data analytics tools, it’s possible to parse valuable insights from semi-structured data.

Time Series Data

Time series data is data that is collected over a certain period of time and is used to identify patterns over that time frame. It’s particularly useful in situations where it’s important to track changes in behavior or performance over time. This type of data is often collected from sensors in machines and devices that help identify trends in usage and performance. This data is especially valuable in situations where preventative maintenance is needed, as the data can help identify potential wear and tear issues before they become a major problem.


Metadata refers to data that is generated by data. It describes data that provides information about other data. This type of data is particularly useful in big data systems as it can make it easier to understand how data is being used. It can be used to derive insights and patterns from unstructured data, and can include data sources, authors, dates, and keywords. When metadata is used effectively, it can make it easier to find important insights within big data sets.

Types of Big Data Analytics

Big data analytics is the process of examining large and varied data sets. It involves collecting data from different sources and analyzing it to reveal hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other useful information.

Descriptive Analytics

Descriptive analytics is the simplest form of analytics. It uses historical data to provide insights into what has happened in the past. The goal is to summarize the data and provide a comprehensive view of what’s been happening. Examples of descriptive analytics include reports that describe sales figures, marketing trends, website traffic and engagement metrics. The goal of descriptive analytics is to summarize data to make it more understandable.

Predictive Analytics

Predictive analytics tries to use historical data to predict future outcomes. This type of analytics uses a variety of models to analyze historical data and then uses these models to predict future outcomes. It can also be used to analyze statistical data in order to find patterns that can be used to predict future trends and outcomes. This type of analytics can be useful in marketing, finance, and healthcare.

Prescriptive Analytics

Prescriptive analytics is used to provide advice on what action should be taken to achieve specific results. This type of analytics focuses on leveraging data to inform the most effective course of action. Prescriptive analytics combines data, statistical algorithms, and machine learning techniques to determine the optimal solution to a specific problem.

Types of Big Data with Example

Social Media Data

Social media data is unstructured data, generated from various social media platforms, including Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Instagram. This data includes posts, updates, blogs, tweets, and other content shared on social media platforms. Social media data is considered an excellent resource for businesses to understand customer behaviour, preferences, interests, and opinions. It helps the businesses with the customer personas, market trends, social media engagement metrics, and brand reputation analysis.

Multimedia Data

Multimedia data includes various multimedia forms, including images, video, audio, speech, and music. Multimedia data has high volume, veracity, and variety attributes. This type of data is mainly generated from multimedia devices such as smartphones, cameras, and multimedia players. For example, YouTube, Vimeo, and TikTok platforms process significant amounts of space for audio and video, which makes it one of the bottomless reserves of multimedia data. Businesses can leverage such data to identify new ways to appeal to their audience.

Financial Data

Financial data is structured data generated by financial institutions, including banks, insurance companies, trading firms, and other financial service providers. Financial data includes stock market data, sales records, revenue statements, balance sheets, and other financial data. This data is used to identify trends, predict outcomes, and reduce risks. For example, big data analytics can be used to detect fraudulent transactions and activities.

Types of Big Data Analysis

Big data analysis is the process of discovering hidden patterns, improving decision making processes, and providing insights that can drive positive outcomes for businesses. There are several ways to analyze big data:

Predictive Analysis

Predictive analysis involves analyzing historical data and predicting insights into the future. This type of analysis is used in many different industries, including finance, healthcare, and marketing. Predictive analysis is used to identify patterns and make predictions based on the results of past data.

Prescriptive Analysis

Prescriptive analysis is a form of data mining where algorithmic models are constructed to identify actions that can be taken to reach the optimal outcome predicted in predictive analysis. This type of analysis can provide an appropriate recommendation to businesses.

Diagnostic Analysis

Diagnostic analysis is a process of identifying the root cause of a particular problem by analyzing the available data. Businesses can identify the gap between expected results versus actual outcomes by applying such analysis.

Types of Big Data Visualization

Big data visualization is a process of creating visual representations of data to interpret complex data and discover patterns. It helps businesses with insights into patterns and trends. Here are the types of big data visualization:

Heat Maps

Heat maps are graphical representations of data using colors to identify patterns. Heat maps can be used to identify certain trends, including high-priority areas of concern that need to be addressed by a business.

Network Charts

Network charts represent data in a social graph style with nodes and edges that represent interconnected data. This type of visualization is useful in identifying underlying relationships and connections between different data points, such as social networks and computer networks.

Word Clouds

Word clouds are visual representations of data where words are emphasized based on the frequency of their occurrence. This type of visual aid is useful for identifying popular keywords, which can help businesses with SEO strategies and identifying potential concerns in online forums and social media.

Types of Big Data Technologies

Big data technologies refer to a set of technologies used to process large and complex datasets. Here are the types of big data technologies:

Apache Hadoop

Apache Hadoop is an open-source platform that is used to store and process vast amounts of data. The platform is used to identify patterns and provide insights that can benefit businesses. Generally, Hadoop is preferred for raw, unstructured, non-relational data. It is highly scalable and designed to handle data sets that go beyond terabytes and petabytes.

Apache Spark

Apache Spark is an open-source big data processing engine that is used for processing and analyzing large datasets. It is known for its speed and efficiency, particularly in handling data streams in real-time. Spark is ideal for iterative computations needed in machine learning algorithms.

NoSQL Databases

NoSQL databases are known for their ability to handle unstructured and semi-structured data. It can process non-relational data with ease, which makes it a popular choice for businesses to handle complex and diverse information. Some popular examples of NoSQL databases include MongoDB, Cassandra, Couchbase, and Amazon DynamoDB.

Types of Big Data in Hindi

With the rise of big data, it's important to understand some of the terminologies in Hindi. Some of the key terms are:

  • संरचित डेटा - Structured Data
  • असंरचित डेटा - Unstructured Data
  • अर्ध संरचित डेटा - Semi-Strucutured Data
  • समय शृंखला आधारित डेटा - Time Series Data
  • मेटाडेटा - Metadata
  • Types of Big Data - GeeksforGeeks

    GeeksforGeeks is a popular platform for technology enthusiasts. Here are some of the types of big data identified by GeeksforGeeks:

  • Web Data - This type of data is collected from various sources such as social media, blogs, and other web-based platforms. Web data is unstructured and requires big data processing tools to analyze.
  • Machine Data - This data is generated from different Internet of Things (IoT) devices and other machines. This type of data is usually time-based and is suitable for analysis by time-series analytics.
  • Streaming Data - Streaming data is generated in real-time and needs to be processed and analyzed quickly to extract insights quickly from the data.
  • Dark Data - Dark data refers to all the data collected by businesses and organizations that is not typically used or analyzed. This data can include emails, chat messages, and customer interactions that are not analyzed or utilized for business decisions.
  • Types of Big Data Analytics with Example

    Marketing Analytics

    Marketing analytics is used to identify customer behavior, buying patterns, and preferences that are used to create targeted marketing strategies. Marketing analytics can help businesses to target advertisements to specific audiences, improving the chances of conversion rates. Analytics tools use a range of customer data sets, including social media data, purchasing data, and demographic data to help target advertisements to specific individuals.

    Financial Analytics

    Financial analytics can provide businesses with valuable insights into the financial health of their organization. Metrics such as cash flow, revenue trends, and expenses help businesses better plan for the future and identify areas of improvement. Financial analytics tools can help organizations analyze and predict outcomes based on historical data, including sales volumes, revenue numbers, and other financial data.

    Customer Analytics

    Customer analytics helps businesses improve their overall customer experience. It uses data from various sources such as social media data, transaction data, and demographic data to identify customer preferences and behaviors. It helps businesses identify customer patterns, better understand consumer needs, and customize marketing strategies accordingly.


    Big data has changed the way businesses operate by providing insights into complex data sets. Understanding the different types of big data, analytics, visualization, and technologies can help businesses create effective strategies and enhance overall performance. Ultimately, the goal of big data is to collect, process, and analyze data to identify patterns that can benefit businesses in various ways.

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